IMCrowd is a crowd simulator where the collective behaviors will emerge out of the social process such as emotion contagion and conformity effect among individual agents.


1. IMCrowd has been implemented with a multi-agent system which can create autonomous agents moving on the continuous space. Every agent was endowed with a local perception and autonomous abilities to improvise their actions.

2.IMCrowd has been built with a novel communication model based on the social psychological process such as emotion contagion and conformity effect. It is expected that collective behaviors would emerge out of the interaction among individual agents through this communication mechanism.

3.IMCrowd has been designed a decision tree based on Randall Collins’micro-sociological theory about violence for an agent to select a proper action in a riot situation. Thus, you can generate sophisticated riot scenes in which various collective behaviors such as assembling, confrontation, standoff, encirclement, vandalism, attacking, chasing, stampede and other emergent behaviors can be observed. In addition, the broken window effect is also taken into consideration when the interactive obstacle has been damaged by vandalic agents.

4.IMCrowd provides user a tool to customize the simulation result by adjusting only a few parameters to yield various kinds of crowd scenarios and behaviors.



Demo Videos:

Crowd Panic Crowd Gathering
Fighting in Two-Party CASA 2010 Demo Video
Circular Mill Crowd Animation


W.M. Chao and T.Y. Li. 2011. "Simulating Riot for Virtual Crowds with a Social Communication Model", Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference on Computational Collective Intelligence (ICCCI 2011). Poland. (Published by Springer in LNAI) [paper]

W.M. Chao and T.Y. Li,. 2011.07, "Simulating Collective Behaviors of Virtual Crowds – Using Riot as an Example", in Proceedings of Computer Graphics Workshop, Taipei, (in Chinese) . [paper]

W.M. Chao and T.Y. Li. 2010. "Simulation of Social Behaviors in Virtual Crowd", Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Computer Animation and Social Agents (CASA 2010). France. [paper] [video] (youtube)

W.M. Chao and T.Y. Li. 2008. "Simulating Crowd Behaviors with a Communication Model", Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference on Computer Animation and Social Agents (CASA 2008). Korea. [paper]

W.M. Chao and T.Y. Li. 2008. "Simulating Collective Behaviors for Virtual Crowds with Social Communication Model", Proceedings of 2008 Computer Graphics Workshop. (in Chinese) Taiwan. [paper]

W.M. Chao and T.Y. Li. 2007. "A Crowd Simulation Framework with Communication Mechanism and Customized Events", Proceedings of 2007 Computer Graphics Workshop. (in Chinese) Taiwan. [paper] [video] (youtube)

Thesis: Simulating Social Behaviors of Virtual Crowd with a Communication Model (164 pages in English)

Source code: IMCrowd on Github



Online Resources Related to IMCrowd:
  1. Secret of ants - Death spiral!
  2. Crowd Gathering vs. Sasquatch music festival 2009
  3. [TED] How to Start a Movement
  4. [TEDx] Social Contagion

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